What is acute tubular necrosis?
Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) is a kidney disorder that damages the tubular cells of the kidneys and leads to severe kidney failure. The tubes are small vessels in the kidneys that help filter blood as it passes through the kidneys.
Inside the kidneys are small tubular structures that remove salt, excess fluid, and waste products from the blood. When these tubes are damaged or destroyed, acute tubular necrosis (ATN) develops from acute kidney injury. The damage can lead to severe kidney failure.
- Common causes are low blood flow to the kidneys (due to low blood pressure), medications for kidney damage, and serious body infections.
- People have no symptoms unless kidney damage is severe.
- Diagnosis is mainly based on the results of laboratory tests.
- The cause of treatment is, for example, stopping medications that can damage the kidneys, giving intravenous fluids to raise blood pressure, and giving antibiotics to treat the infection.
- Injury to the tubular cells of the kidney affects the kidneys' ability to filter blood. Therefore, waste products such as urea and creatinine are formed in the bloodstream.
What are the symptoms of acute tubular necrosis?
There are many symptoms that the patient can experience. In addition to:
- Dehydration or excessive thirst.
- A small amount of urine.
- Swelling and fluid retention.
- Nausea and vomiting
- Difficulty waking up / drowsiness.
- You feel slowed down.
- Feeling sleepy even during the day.
- Feeling tired or physically exhausted
- You experience excessive thirst or dehydration.
- Urination is very little or no
- Retaining fluid or experiencing inflammation in your body
- There are episodes of chaos
Causes of acute tubular necrosis
Acute tubular necrosis usually develops with severe illness and only in the hospital. The most common causes
An episode of low blood pressure, which leads to insufficient blood flow through the kidneys.
Medicines that damage the kidneys.
The most common causes of low blood pressure leading to acute tubular necrosis are significant blood loss (due to injury or major surgery), severe burns, acute infectious infection (sepsis), and pancreatitis.
Sepsis also directly damages kidney cells, further exacerbating the effects of low blood pressure caused by sepsis.
Commonly used medications for kidney damage include aminoglycoside antibiotics (such as gentamicin and tobramycin), amphotericin B (a drug used to treat acute fungal infections throughout the body), cholecysto methacin (a drug used to treat people hospitalized for another disorder) Antibiotics used to treat infections) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Aminoglycosides are more common in adults who have had major surgeries or who have severe liver, gallbladder, or bile duct disorders. In rare cases, exposure to a contrast agent during imaging can damage the kidneys (contrast nephropathy).
Acute tubular necrosis is more likely to develop in adults with severe kidney disease or failure, diabetes, or both.
Who is at risk for acute tubular necrosis?
Many factors can put you at risk for ATN. Risk factors depend on your general health and other medical problems:
- A recent injury to your body, especially your kidneys. This injury can cause a blood clot or other blockage in the blood vessels that serve the kidneys.
- Bad reaction to blood transfusion. Your body can reject or destroy the transfused blood cells. This can cause problems if your body does not get enough blood supply to the kidneys.
- Septic shock. Sepsis causes a severe drop in blood pressure and slower blood flow to the kidneys. This can be very dangerous if you already have low blood pressure problems.
- A major surgical procedure. This can cause problems with the blood supply or circulation.
Diagnosis of acute tubular necrosis
If your doctor suspects ATN, he may order specific diagnostic tests:
- Urinalysis to look for abnormal cells in the urine, the color of the urine, and signs of infection by bacteria and other organisms.
- Blood urea nitrogen and urine creatinine tests both increase with kidney failure
- Biopsy to examine your kidney tissue
- Blood tests to measure sodium and creatinine.
- CT scan of the inside of your kidney
Several tests can be used to diagnose severe kidney failure. These include blood waste products, such as levels of electrolytes, such as blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and plasma potassium. The accumulation of these substances in the blood indicates that the kidneys are not working properly. Acute tubular necrosis is usually diagnosed by a nephrologist. Diagnosis is primarily non-clinical and can be guided by microscopic examination of your urine. In some cases, a kidney tissue biopsy may be performed when the diagnosis is uncertain.
Treatment of acute tubular necrosis
Your doctor may prescribe medicine to reduce the buildup of fluid and waste in your kidneys. You may also be told to limit your diet to reduce sodium and potassium intake.
You must control the amount of water you drink to avoid excessive fluid retention. Excess fluid can cause abnormal swelling in the arms, legs, and feet.
Depending on your condition, Nephrologist doctor suggests dialysis may be another treatment option. This procedure helps the kidneys filter excess fluid and waste.
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