Sunny Fang

Sunny Fang
Member since Jul 21, 2021

by Sunny Fang on Jul 21, 2022

Business

4 Views

Most of the drugs currently in clinical use are based on small molecules and use the "occupancy-driven" mode of action to inhibit the function of proteins and play a role in the treatment of diseases. Different from traditional small molecule inhibitors and antagonists, protein degradation technology has developed rapidly in recent years because of its ability to induce the degradation of therapeutic target proteins, providing a new idea for the development of new drugs. PROTACs (Proteolysis-targeting Chimeras), which was first proposed by Crews et al in 2001, can reduce protein levels rather than inhibit protein functions by taking advantage of the natural protein cleaning system in the body. PROTAC is a heterobifunctional molecule with one end connected to a ligand that binds the target protein, one end to an E3 ubiquitin ligase, and a suitable Linker in the middle. PROTAC degradation of target proteins is achieved through the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). Since ... Continue reading →

by Sunny Fang on Jul 21, 2022

Business

4 Views

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, irreversible neurodegenerative disease clinically manifested by cognitive impairment, behavioral abnormalities, and social deficits. It is predicted that by 2050, the number of people 65 and older with dementia in the United States could reach 13.8 million. In China, more than 15.07 million elderly people aged 60 or over suffer from dementia, of which about 9.83 million suffer from AD. At present, the pathogenesis of AD remains unclear. β-Amyloid deposition and tau hyperphosphorylation are widely recognized as neurobiological mechanisms of AD pathogenesis. In addition, other age-related, protective, and disease-promoting factors may interact with the core mechanisms of AD and may be involved in AD pathogenesis. In recent years, the gene editing technology of CRISPR/Cas9 has developed rapidly, showing great potential in the fields of basic research and disease treatment. Recently, gene editing technology has been evaluated ... Continue reading →

by Sunny Fang on Jun 28, 2022

Business

9 Views

In recent years, targeted protein degraders have entered the mainstream of drug development at a very rapid rate. Thalidomide and its derivatives for the treatment of multiple myeloma and other conditions have demonstrated the potential of protein degraders, while ARV-471, an estrogen receptor degrader based on the drug development of thalidomide, is targeted at the early stage of breast cancer has continued to show superior performance in clinical trials. Currently, targeted protein degradators are mainly divided into two types: small molecular "molecular glue" and biffunctional molecular degradators (PROTAC), both of which can mediate the binding and degradation of E3 ubiquitin ligase to the target protein. But the definition of the former has always been so vague that people often lump them together.  In fact, there are significant differences in the mechanism of action and thermodynamic behavior between the two. The most important difference is that the ... Continue reading →

by Sunny Fang on Jun 28, 2022

Business

7 Views

A study conducted under the Lung Cancer Master Protocol (Lung-MAP) found that when treated with a combination of ramuzumab (Cyramza) and Keytruda,  Patients with advanced NSCLC whose cancer progressed during prior immunotherapy lived significantly longer than when treated with one of the current standard therapies for this cancer. The hazard ratio (80% confidence interval) for overall survival (OS) time for patients in the study group versus those in the standard-of-care group was 0.69 (0.51-0.92). The median OS time in the two groups was 14.5 months and 11.6 months, respectively. The results was published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. The study, also known as S1800A, was conducted as part of Lung-MAP, the first lung cancer precision medicine trial supported by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), a division of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and conducted at NCI’s National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN) and the NCI Community Oncology Research ... Continue reading →

by Sunny Fang on May 26, 2022

Business

65 Views

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a polyether compound derived from petroleum with many applications, from industrial manufacturing to medicine. PEG is also known as polyethylene oxide (PEO) or polyoxyethylene (POE), it has wide variety of applications depending on the length of the polymer chain and the molecular weight of the final polymer.   The synthesis of PEG is done by polymerizing ethylene oxide, the main ingredient in antifreeze, using a ring-opening technique, which allows for PEGs of a range of molecular weights and molecular weight distributions to be constructed. This range in weights is what makes it suitable for several uses. While varying the molecular weight of PEG can have slight effects on its characteristics, mostly on its shape and physical appearance, many characteristics define PEG. It is non-toxic, colorless, inert, odorless, and non-volatile. Also, it is incredibly soluble in water, and organic solvents such as benzene, carbon tetrachloride, and ... Continue reading →

by Sunny Fang on May 26, 2022

Business

67 Views

Canagliflozin is a medication used to treat type 2 diabetes. It is a third-line medication to be tried after metformin, a first-line medication for type 2 diabetes. It is used together with exercise and diet. It is not recommended in type 1 diabetes. Mechanism action of Canagliflozin Canagliflozin is a sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT2) inhibitor. Glucose filtered in the renal tubular lumen is mainly reabsorbed by SGLT2 expressed in the proximal renal tubule. By inhibiting SGLT2, cagliegin reduces the renal reabsorption of filtered glucose, lowers renal glucose threshold (RTG) and increases urine glucose excretion, thus reducing blood glucose. It is important to note that SGLT2 inhibitors are safe because their hypoglycemic effect is insulin-independent and fasting increases compensatory production of hepatic endogenous glucose. What are the effects of Canagliflozin? 1. Lower blood sugar As a new type of hypoglycemic drug, Canagliflozin has obvious advantages compared with ... Continue reading →

by Sunny Fang on Apr 21, 2022

Business

42 Views

Numerous applications of PEGs have been reported in the scientific literature over the years. Due to their solubility in water, excellent biocompatibility and non-immunogenicity, PEG linkers are widely used in biological and medical research, such as antibody-drug conjugates, nanoparticle drug delivery, biotinylation, PEGylation protein drugs and small molecule drugs, etc. What are PEG Linkers? PEG linkers, also known as PEG reagents, are chemically functionalized PEG linkers. PEG linkers are particularly attractive as a cross-linker for conjugation and biolabeling, due to their water solubility, lack of toxicity, low immunogenicity. Monodispersed and polydispersed are two classes of PEG linkers. Monodispersed PEG has an exact number of PEG units with a specific single chemical structure with precise molecular weight. But the molecular weight of polydisperse PEG is indeterminate and distributed within a certain range. Application of PEG Linkers Long-acting drugs are the traditional ... Continue reading →

by Sunny Fang on Apr 20, 2022

Business

46 Views

Ensitrelvir (code name S-217622, brand name Xocova),  is a new inhibitor of the SARS-CoV-2 major protease (Mpro), also known as 3C-like protease, has been shown to reduce the viral load and help alleviate the severity of SARS-CoV-2 in infected hamsters. In cells, low nanomolar to sub-micromolar doses of Ensitrelvir suppress viral growth. In hamsters, oral treatment of Ensitrelvir showed excellent pharmacokinetic qualities and hastened recovery from acute SARS-CoV-2 infection.   Ensitrelvir also demonstrated antiviral effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs), such as the highly pathogenic Delta variant and the newly discovered Omicron variant. Overall, these findings show that Ensitrelvir, which is an antiviral drug that is currently being tested in Phase II/III clinical trials, has impressive antiviral efficiency and effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 and could be a viable oral treatment option for COVID-19.   The mechanism of action of Ensitrelvir ... Continue reading →

by Sunny Fang on Mar 30, 2022

Business

47 Views

Just one dose of a new nanoparticle-based COVID-19 vaccine is enough to generate an immune response in animals, and the vaccines currently in clinical use are on track. With minor changes, Northwestern University researchers hope the same vaccine platform could target other infectious diseases. In a new study, mice that received protein-based immunizations survived 100% when challenged with a lethal dose of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes COVID-19. None of the mice developed lung damage due to SARS-CoV-2 exposure. All mice that did not receive the nanoparticle vaccine died during the 14-day trial. The findings, published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, outline the structure-function relationship between the first spherical nucleic acid (SNA) vaccine developed to prevent viral infection. The nanoparticles, known as SNAs, house immune targets, globular DNA that can enter and stimulate immune cells with extremely high efficiency. SNAs have been ... Continue reading →

by Sunny Fang on Mar 30, 2022

Business

53 Views

On February 16, 2022, the data on Paxlovid previously published by Pfizer and submitted to the FDA were published in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM). This NEJM article published viral load data that Paxlovid reduced viral load by 0.868 log10 compared to controls for 5 days of treatment, which equates to a remarkable 7.38-fold reduction in viral load. This pivotal study (NCT04960202) enrolled 2,246 patients with COVID-19 , 1,120 received Paxlovid and 1,126 received placebo. Interim analysis showed that 28 days after receiving treatment, Paxlovid reduced the risk of hospitalization and death by 89.1% (p <0.001). Applying the final results of the ITT analysis, Paxlovid reduced the risk of hospitalization and death by 88.9% (p <0.001). “Paxlovid is the potencial blockbuster drugs for COVID-19 treatment. And in response to this trend, our management decides to introduce a new product line, providing Paxlovid intermediates caronic anhydride & derivatives ... Continue reading →

by Sunny Fang on Feb 22, 2022

Business

71 Views

Among adults with overweight or obesity, once-weekly subcutaneous semaglutide plus counseling for diet and physical activity results in significantly greater weight loss at 68 weeks than once-daily subcutaneous liraglutide, according to a study published in the Jan. 11 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association. Domenica M. Rubino, M.D., from the Washington Center for Weight Management and Research in Arlington, Virginia, and colleagues compared the efficacy and adverse event profiles of once-weekly subcutaneous semaglutide (126 patients) versus once-daily subcutaneous liraglutide (127 patients) or placebo (85 patients) in people with overweight or obesity also undertaking diet and physical activity and followed for 68 weeks. The researchers found that participants had significantly greater odds of achieving ≥10 percent, ≥15 percent, and ≥20 percent weight loss with semaglutide versus liraglutide (odds ratios, 6.3, 7.9, and 8.2, respectively). Discontinuation of ... Continue reading →

by Sunny Fang on Feb 22, 2022

Business

67 Views

According to statistics from the World Health Organization (WHO), nearly 2 billion people are overweight or obese worldwide. Every year, overweight or obesity causes 2.8 million deaths.     What 's Orlistat ?    Orlistat is a lipase inhibitor used in the treatment of obesity that works by inhibiting fat-metabolizing enzymes. It was originally approved by the FDA in 1999 as the prescription drug Exenical, was approved in 2007 as the over-the-counter medication Alli. This drug is a generally well-tolerated and effective weight-loss aid.   What 's the mechanism of action?   Orlistat is a drug designed to treat obesity. It'sa potent and selective inhibitor of various lipase enzymes responsible for the metabolism of fat. It acts in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract via covalent binding to the serine residues located on the active site of both When orlistat is taken with food containing fat, it partially ... Continue reading →

by Sunny Fang on Jan 21, 2022

Business

77 Views

3D printing (3DP) technology has been repurposed to apply to pharmaceutical development, in recent years it has been used to produce tablets of personalized dosage and combine several prescriptions into one tablet. Future possible developments discuss methods of sustained release and the ability to integrate into sites of injury or trauma specifically to assist the healing process. 3D Bioprinting in History First discovered and developed in the 1980s, 3DP is a relatively novel tool in the medical field. The first medical application of 3DP was in the early 2000s for the production of custom dental prostheses. From then, 3DP was seen as an inexpensive alternative means of producing custom prosthetic limbs and less common prostheses such as windpipes. Then came the advent of bioprinting functional organs. The creation of “Bio-Ink”, a polymer gel scaffold containing cells of specified origin with the potential to print fully artificial organs. In 1988, an inkjet printer was ... Continue reading →

by Sunny Fang on Jan 21, 2022

Business

78 Views

3D printing (3DP) technology has been repurposed to apply to pharmaceutical development, in recent years it has been used to produce tablets of personalized dosage and combine several prescriptions into one tablet. Future possible developments discuss methods of sustained release and the ability to integrate into sites of injury or trauma specifically to assist the healing process. 3D Bioprinting in History First discovered and developed in the 1980s, 3DP is a relatively novel tool in the medical field. The first medical application of 3DP was in the early 2000s for the production of custom dental prostheses. From then, 3DP was seen as an inexpensive alternative means of producing custom prosthetic limbs and less common prostheses such as windpipes. Then came the advent of bioprinting functional organs. The creation of “Bio-Ink”, a polymer gel scaffold containing cells of specified origin with the potential to print fully artificial organs. In 1988, an inkjet printer was ... Continue reading →

by Sunny Fang on Jan 21, 2022

Business

72 Views

Eating at least two serves of fruit daily has been linked with 36 percent lower odds of developing type 2 diabetes, a new Edith Cowan University (ECU) study has found. The study, published today in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, revealed that people who ate at least two serves of fruit per day had higher measures of insulin sensitivity than those who ate less than half a serve. Type 2 diabetes is a growing public health concern with an estimated 451 million people worldwide living with the condition. A further 374 million people are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The study's lead author, Dr Nicola Bondonno from ECU's Institute for Nutrition Research, said the findings offer fresh evidence for the health benefits of fruit. "This is important because high levels of circulating insulin (hyperinsulinemia) can damage blood vessels and are related not only to diabetes, but also to high blood pressure, obesity, and heart disease. ... Continue reading →

by Sunny Fang on Dec 22, 2021

Business

75 Views

Antibody-Drug Conjugates (ADC) is a type of anticancer drug that links a drug to cancer-targeting antibodies. The antibody detects tumor-specific proteins expressed on cancer cells and directs the cytotoxic anticancer drug towards the cancer cell.   Compared to alternative cancer treatments, for example, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation, and stem cell therapy, ADC combines chemotherapy and immunotherapy and allows selective delivery of anticancer drugs and reduces systemic exposure and toxicity of anticancer drugs.   Components of ADC   One of the key requirements of ADC is the ability of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to recognize tumor markers. These are unique antigenic markers highly expressed on cancer cells but are not found or in a low level of expression on normal, healthy cells.   For example, the HER2 (human epidermal growth receptor 2) receptor is expressed in cancer cells 100-fold higher than normal cells.  Moreover, ... Continue reading →

Is There A Link Between COVID-19 And Parkinson's Disease

by Sunny Fang on Dec 22, 2021

Business

76 Views

Case reports of younger COVID-19 patients developing Parkinson’s disease within weeks of contracting the virus led researchers to investigate a possible link between the two conditions.   Scientists recently demonstrated that, in the test tube, the SARS-CoV-2 N-protein interacts with a neuronal protein known as α-synuclein and boosts the development of amyloid fibrils—the pathological protein bundles characteristic of Parkinson’s disease.   Along with causing respiratory symptoms, SARS-CoV-2 can induce neurological problems, like headaches, loss of smell, and “brain fog.” However, it is still controversial if these symptoms are caused by the virus penetrating the brain, or if the symptoms are due to chemical signals released in the brain by the immune system as a response to the virus.   In Parkinson’s disease, a protein known as α-synuclein develops abnormal amyloid fibrils, which leads to the death ... Continue reading →

by Sunny Fang on Nov 23, 2021

Business

129 Views

A unique antibody drug conjugate (ADC), which delivers a high dose of a cancer-killing drug to tumor cells through a targeted antibody, has been found in a global phase 3 clinical study to nearly double the survival time of patients with refractory metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. The study of the ADC drug sacituzumab govitecan (SG), for which Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) was a lead clinical research site after serving as the lead site for the pivotal phase 1/2 trial, reported superior outcomes compared to single-agent chemotherapy, the standard for treating metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. The phase 3 results of the study, known as ASCENT, were published in the New England Journal of Medicine. Metastatic triple-negative breast cancer is the most aggressive type of breast cancer with a poor prognosis. Chemotherapy has remained the only standard treatment option, but it is associated with low response rates and short progression-free survival. SG, which was ... Continue reading →

by Sunny Fang on Nov 23, 2021

Business

105 Views

A new study by UBC researchers is set to change international treatment recommendations for people who are newly diagnosed with HIV — an update that could affect nearly two million people per year worldwide. The study found that dolutegravir is the optimal medication for first-line treatment for people newly diagnosed with HIV, a choice that has not been clear over the past several years. Dolutegravir (DTG), sold under the brand name Tivicay, is an antiretroviral medication used, together with other medication, to treat HIV/AIDS. It may also be used, as part of post exposure prophylaxis, to prevent HIV infection following potential exposure. The risk of adverse reaction meant that, although dolutegravir was found to be favorable compared to other options, it was only recommended as an alternative, with an antiretroviral called efavirenz recommended as the primary treatment. The study team completed a network meta-analysis of research stemming from 68 available antiretroviral ... Continue reading →

by Sunny Fang on Oct 19, 2021

Business

122 Views

The coronavirus pandemic has made vaccines from Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna and the mRNA technology that they use into household names. These types of jabs are new but researchers have been working for decades to try to figure out how to use messenger RNA for other vaccinations and to treat illnesses from AIDS to cancer. How does it work? Messenger RNA’s job in the body is to help deliver specific instructions from DNA to cells. In the case of the Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna jabs, lab-generated mRNA tells human cells to create antigens — proteins that are similar to ones found in the COVID-19 virus. Thanks to those antigens, a person’s immune system learns how to fight the virus and neutralise COVID if it enters the body. After the cells create these proteins, the body breaks down the mRNA instructions and gets rid of them. Such direct communication with cells is revolutionary — classic vaccines aimed to provoke an immune response by injecting a neutralised ... Continue reading →

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