Bacterial infections are a current public health focus, mainly due to the dramatic growth in bacterial resistance. Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus, the most common, are difficult to treat due to their resistance to multiple antibiotics (Totora et al., 2008). Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of nosocomial infections and attacks the skin, urinary tract, ears, and eyes (Murray et al., 2004). Escherichia coli, the most common species of the Escherichia genus, is associated with severe urinary tract infections, menadione and gastroenteritis menadione
The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the antibiotic-modifying activity of menadione against multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli with increasing subinhibitory concentrations. In addition, the modulatory mechanism of action of menadione was compared with that of cholesterol and ergosterol
The bacteria used in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test were standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442 and Escherichia coli ATCC 10536. To evaluate the modulatory activity of the extracts, the following multidrug-resistant strains isolated from clinical settings were used: Pseudomonas aeruginosa 03, Escherichia coli 27, and Staphylococcus aureus 358, the resistance in the MIC test is shown in the table 1 shown. All strains were obtained from Clinical Mycology Laboratory - UFPB. All strains were maintained on heart infusion agar slants (HIA, Difco Laboratories. Lawrence, USA) and cells were grown overnight at 37°C in brain heart infusion prior to assay
Vitamin K3 (menadione) was purchased from Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, USA. Prepare a stock solution in 1 mL of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at a concentration of 100 mg/mL, then dilute with distilled water to a concentration of 1024 µg/mL, except for menadione, which is diluted in DMSO. Therefore, a DMSO control was included to determine any possible interference with the results.
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